From Birth To One Year.
Babies develop very quickly during the first year of life. They move from not being able to control limb movements to being able to reach for things and bang them together. In the first few weeks of life, they can’t focus farther than 8 to 12 inches away – just the right distance for her to gaze at your face. They make reflex movements like sucking. Their hearing is fully developed and they might turn toward familiar sounds, such as your voice. They learn about things by feel, sound, sight and smell. Appropriate Toys are designed to match your baby’s emerging abilities will help keep him happy, interested and stimulate rapid learning. By 3 months, babies start to smile and actively enjoy playtime now. They develop different cries for different needs (hungry, tired, wet) and start to babble and mimic the sounds you make.
They can hold head up unsupported for a short time. Hand-eye coordination is improving as they can open and close their hands, bring his hands to his mouth, and push down with his legs if you hold him in a standing position and shake toys. You’ll notice them closely tracking objects with eyes and focusing intently on faces. Also starts paying attention to watching and recognizing faces. By 6 months old, they’re half way through their first year and fully engaged with the world now. They can – probably sit without your help and roll to their tummy and back again by 7 months. The finger muscles are well developed, so they can pull objects closer and can hold toys and move them from one hand to another. Also they start testing cause and effect, such as seeing what happens when shaking a toy.
Auditory skills have been improving, so they are more sensitive to your tone of voice and may heed your warning when you tell them “no.” They know their names now and turn to look at you when you call them. Babies now can Use sounds to express happiness, sadness and anger. By 9 to 12 months, you now have a little eager explorer at home. Babies now can get into and out of a sitting position, May stand with support and can pick up small objects using thumb and fingers (pincer grasp).Their babbling sound more like real conversation, and you’ll hear their first words – often “mama” or “dada.” Soon they will try to repeat words and use gestures to indicate what they want – or don’t want. Their hands are increasingly nimble and they like putting things in containers and taking them out again. They can grasp to eat finger food.
They also love to explore everyday objects, both in correct ways (using a spoon to eat) and incorrect ways (using a spoon to bang with). Babies love to imitate you, by combing their own hair, drinking from a cup, and pretending to talk on the phone. They now have a favorite object or toy. While they may seem outgoing, they are a little fearful of new things and reserved around strangers. Separation anxiety is normal at this age.
From One Year To Three Years.
Busy, is the right word to describe children at this age. Every day, your child’s life is filled with exploration and learning. After their first birthday, babies have gone through a physical transformation. They love to explore all surroundings and can move around much faster. However, they lack the intellectual ability to be able to think ahead, and have little memory of past events -that will be better when they reach 2 years-. Therefore surroundings environment need to be constantly monitored for safety. They now can stand alone and walk and stick out their arms, legs and feet to help get dressed and undressed. They also become quite the climber, scrambling onto sofas and chairs.The more they play actively, the more they will develop healthy habits for a balanced life. They have limited social interactions with other children and tend to be self-centered, butthey arelearning how to socialize with other children. This creates new opportunities for cooperative play.
Toddlers want to do everything themselves.They like to get clothes on and off, feed themselves with a cup and utensils, and wash their hands. Fine motors have been more developed, so we can see them doodle with a crayon, build towers of four or more blocks, throw a ball, and enjoys filling and emptying containers. You might notice the first signs that indicate whether the child will be left or right handed. At this age they are very observant and learn by watching and imitating other especially their parents. Role playing starts now and continues throughout childhood as a creative and imaginative form of play.
During this age, children are absorbing language at a rapid rate.Language at this age is not only about the sounds your child makes, it’s also about how your child understands what you say to him and how he tells you what he wants and needs. Some toddlers may not verbalize as much as others, but by the middle of the second year, they may use about ten familiar words, likeno, mama and several other words. Toddlers like to use gestures to get their ideas across, and it´s common for them to invent words for special objects. They can follow two-step directions, such as “Pick up your book and bring it to me.” Cognitive milestones are the ways he learns to think, explore, learn and solve new problems.
Toddlers start to know the use of everyday objects, such as a spoon, a toothbrush or phone. They can now make the connection between a word you say and a picture in a book. They like to test cause and effect, such as what happens when he throws his cup on the floor. They feel very satisfied when they know how to point to their own head, eyes, ears, nose or mouth. Separation anxiety began to decrease. They would be more comfortable playing alongside other children and spending time with other caregivers. They will grow increasingly independent – and possibly become more courageous.
From Four Years To Six Years.
By this age, children have become more curious, energetic,sociable and independence. They are funny and love to play with language to tell silly jokes. They have improved motor skills and can now run, hop, skip and jump without tripping over their own feet.Their improved balance and coordination allows them to vary the speed, direction and type of movement. They are able to throw, catch, bounce and kick balls.They also can start to move in different ways at the same time to do things like swim, dribble a basketball or dance.Finger dexterity is also well developed. Children can hold a pencil – using a tripod grip (two fingers and a thumb) – to trace easy writing patterns. they can draw basic shapes, write letters and numbers andcut out basic shapes with scissors.
They have also become much more independent with dressing, washing, brushing his teeth and eating. Developed hand-eye coordination allows them to judge distance, comprehend positions, and to match and categorize objects. Child´s vision is as accurate as an adult now. Your child can concentrate for longer periods of time, and is ready for more complex toys such as jigsaw puzzles, lacing beads, and supplies for drawing, painting and coloring.They can stick with an activity for 15 minutes and finish a short project.By this age, children learn facts and begin to grasp some basic concept. They canrecognize and name colors and basic shapes, know the letters of the alphabet and letter sounds and count groups of objects up to 10 and recite numbers to 20.They can now make plans about how to play, what to build or what to draw.
The most obvious feature at this age is the use of language. Children are able to describe things in detail, express their feelings and convey concepts like time, size and numbers.Their language have become comprehension and expressive more complete asmost children understand and can use thousands of words, usually in sentences five to eight words long.They can talk about things that are going to happen as well as things that have already happened, as Perception of Time has been developed. Simple multi- step directions can be followed by this age. Children’s social and emotional development tends to go beyond making friends and expressing feelings. They start understanding more complicated things like right and wrong and have developed more control over their emotions and a willingness to please others.
They like to play in groups and have great pleasure in making friends. They are starting to share toys and wait for their turn, and looking after the belongings of others. They also begin to prefer same-gender friendships; become jealous of other people spending time with “their” friends.